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LabReport...Bio102

LabReport...Bio102 - Kirkland 1 Analysis of the Reflex Arc...

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Kirkland 1 Analysis of the Reflex Arc, Sensory Receptors, Proprioception, Vision, and the Human Body Abstract: While observing the effect of the reflex arc, an area on the subject’s knee was located and struck. Results showed that the subject’s leg reacted with a slight extension. The subject’s response was concerning that of antigravity. During the location of pain receptors test, the subject’s palm and back of the hand was selected and pricked with a pin. The subject was able to feel more “pain” on the palm of the hand than on the back of the hand. The determination that was made was that the back of the hand has less receptors than the palm of the hand does. During the two-point threshold, numerous areas of the body were pricked with two pins. Results showed that the index finger, the palm, and the back of the hand had the smallest threshold measurements while the forearm, the neck and the top of the wrist had that longest threshold measurements. In order to test the concept of proprioception, the subject’s thumb was moved in various directions as the subject’s eyes were closed. The subject was able to tell what direction the thumb was moved in. Therefore, the thumb was working to its full potential since nothing happened to it to cause proprioception to be effected. The subject also was instructed to stand a certain distance away from two types of charts in order to test visual acuity and astigmatism. Results showed that the subject was farsighted and had astigmatism. During the afterimages experiment, the subject stared at an image and then stared at a blank white sheet of paper afterwards. The subject saw a green circle with a green star.
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Kirkland 2 Introduction: The PNS is made up of the sensory receptors (for example, tactile, auditory, and visual receptors) and the nerves, which are the communication lines. Various parts of the body are linked to the brain by cranial nerves and to the spinal cord by spinal nerves (Solomon et al. 2005). Hearing, smell, taste, touch, and sight are the five basic senses and are also the primary receptors of the body. Touch receptors are located all over the body while other receptors are located in a particular area of the body. Action potential occurs when the receptors are stimulated and the information is then sent to the CNS. The knee- jerk reflex is an involuntary response. It was predicted that the leg would extend in response to the struck tendon. The two-point threshold is the smallest distance at which the subject was able to tell whether they were being pricked with either one or two pins. It was hypothesized that the fingers and the back of the hand would have the smallest threshold measurements. It was also predicted that the palm of the hand would have the greatest surface area of pain receptors than the back of the hand. [Proprioception has the ability to] help animals maintain postural relations- [to know] the position of one part of the body with respect to another. Located within muscles, tendons, and joints, proprioceptors continually respond to tension and movement (Solomon et al. 2005). It
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