Ford_PPT_Ch_15.ppt - Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology Chapter 15 Opioid Analgesics Copyright \u00a9 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams

Ford_PPT_Ch_15.ppt - Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology...

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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology Chapter 15 Opioid Analgesics Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology Chapter 15 Opioid Analgesics
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Three-Step Analgesic Pain Intensity Treatment Three-Step Analgesic Pain Intensity Treatment The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a three- step analgesic protocol based on intensity as a guideline for treating pain. The “pain ladder” directs the use of both opioids and nonopioids in the treatment of mild to severe pain.
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Introduction to Opioid Analgesics Introduction to Opioid Analgesics Controlled substances Do not change tissues where pain originates Change patient’s perception of pain Treat pain centrally in the brain
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Opioid Analgesics Opioid Analgesics Opiates Morphine Heroin Synthetic opioids
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Opioid Analgesics: Actions Opioid Analgesics: Actions Cells within central nervous system Mu and kappa receptors Agonist agents Opioid analgesic Agonist Partial agonist Agonist-antagonist Nonintended responses
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Opioid Analgesics: Uses Opioid Analgesics: Uses Treat pain Manage opiate dependence Decrease anxiety Support anesthesia adjunct Promote obstetric analgesia Administered intrathecally/epidurally Treats severe diarrhea; intestinal cramping; severe, persistent cough
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Opioid Analgesics: Adverse Reactions Opioid Analgesics: Adverse Reactions CNS: Sedation, increased intracranial pressure Respiratory: Depressed breathing rate/depth GI: Constipation, anorexia, biliary tract spasms Cardiovascular: Tachycardia, bradycardia Genitourinary: Urinary retention/hesitancy Allergic reactions: Pruritus, rash, urticaria Other reactions: Sweating, pain at injection site, local tissue irritation
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Opioid Analgesics: Contraindications Opioid Analgesics: Contraindications Patients with hypersensitivity to drugs Acute bronchial asthma, emphysema, or upper airway obstruction Patients with head injury or increased intracranial pressure Convulsive disorders; severe renal or hepatic dysfunction; acute ulcerative colitis Not recommended in pregnancy or labor
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