Enzymes Formal Lab Report

Enzymes Formal Lab Report - Sara Martinson Dr. Tracy/Dr....

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Sara Martinson Dr. Tracy/Dr. Furlong Enzymes Formal Lab Report Write-Up October 22, 2010 Lab Partner: Paige The Rate of Enzymatic Reactions and Factors That Affect These Reactions Introduction All living cells produce proteins called enzymes. Enzymes are used as catalyst in chemical reactions. Catalyst affect the rate of a chemical reaction by allowing cells to carry out complex chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed to make the reaction proceed more readily than it would in the absence of a catalyst. The enzyme’s shape, typically a globular protein, is determined by the sequence of amino acids, hydrogen-bonds that form along the backbone of the molecule and interactions of side “R-groups”. As they say, structure is function. In a reaction affected by an enzyme, a substance the enzyme acts upon is known as a substrate. (Encyclopedia Britannica 2010) Enzymes contain an active site where a substrate binds to make an enzyme-substrate complex. It is here where catalysis occurs. Once complete, the complex dissociates into the enzyme and the products – the enzyme unchanged and reusable. (Holtzclaw 2010) There are many factors that affect the rate at which an enzyme can function: shape of an enzyme, pH, temperature, and the presence of activators or inhibitors. When an enzyme is placed in an environmental condition much too harsh, the enzyme becomes denatured and can no longer do its function. In this experiment, we first tested the results of the breakdown of starch by amylase with IKI and Benedicts tests. We then tested the effect of environmental factors on the rate of which an enzyme works. These experiments were conducted to gain a better understanding of how enzymes work and how environmental factors can have an impact on the
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rate of enzymatic catabolism. I believe that the more enzymes present, the faster the reaction will occur. Materials and Methods The experiment took place in Van Peurseum Hall room 221 on September 30 th , 2010 by the Biology115 students and took approximately three hours and thirty minutes in a 23 degree Celsius room to complete. Part One: In 2 small test tubes labeled 1 and 2, add 1mL of starch solution to tube 1 and 1mL of distilled water to tube 2. Place both of the tubes in a hot water bath for five minutes and record changes in color. In a well tray, add one drop of IKI solution and one drop of tube one to one slot and one drop of tube two and one drop of IKI to the second slot. Slot one represents a “before” sample and slot two represents a “negative” control. Record the results and clean the slot tray. We then label an empty test tube A and put in 1mL of saliva, collected via my mouth, diluted with 9mL of 0.85% NaCl. Fill a well tray with one drop of IKI into about 10 slots. The tube containing A is added to a tube containing 3mL of starch solution and swirled with timing begun immediately. As soon as timing begins a drop of the solution in the tube is added to the first slot on the well tray containing IKI and again every 15 seconds until the solution, when mixed with
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Enzymes Formal Lab Report - Sara Martinson Dr. Tracy/Dr....

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