Lecture3 - Water Budget I Precipitation Inputs Forest Cover...

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Water Budget I: Precipitation Inputs
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Forest Cover
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Forests and Rainfall Forests won’t grow where P < 15” / yr Forest type depends strongly on rainfall quantity, type (snow, rain) and timing (summer, winter) Forest type is driven by rainfall/temp. 1. Arctic Tundra 2. Boreal 3. Rocky Mt. Evergreen 4. Pacific Coast Evergreen 5. Northern Mixed 6. Eastern Deciduous 7. Coastal Plain Evergreen 8. Mexican Montane 9. Rain Forest/Selva 10. Prairie 11. Tropical Savanna 12. Cool Desert 13. Hot Desert 14. Mediterranean Scrub
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Rainfall and Forest Cover in Africa Breakpoints at 350 mm/yr (< 1% cover) and 650 mm/yr (>50% cover) 14 and 25 in/yr Other predictors showed no effect Fire Herbivore biomass Clay content Soil phosphorus
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Biome Delineation
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Why Should We Care?
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Rainfall Starts As Water Vapor Vapor Amount ~ f(temperature, pressure, available liquid water) [we’ll come back to this] For each temperature there is a saturation point of max water vapor partial pressure. Lower for cooler air ( extremely important ) Condensation occurs when Vaporactual≥ Vapormax Relative humidity is a measure of how close the water vapor partial pressure is to max. RH = [Vaporactual/Vapormax] x 100% Evaporation rate α RH
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Which air mass needs to be cooled more to condense?
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