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Lecture5 - Water Budget III Stream Flow Part 1 P = Q ET G S...

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Water Budget III: Stream Flow – Part 1 P = Q + ET + G + ΔS
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Why Measure Streamflow? Water supply planning How much water can we take out (without harming ecosystems we want to protect) Flood protection How much water will come down the channel if X storm happens? Who’ll be flooded? Water quality What are the fluxes (flow x concentration) of contaminants to a lake or estuary? What are the effects of land use change on water delivery to downstream systems?
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Stream Flow Network (http://water.usgs.gov)
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Hydrograph- graph of flow over time
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Flow vs. Rainfall – A “Filter” Effect
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Extreme Flow vs. Rainfall Filtering Rainfall between Oct 1. 2010 and January 21, 2011 is 2.68 inches
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Consider the “Filter” Effects of: Watersheds with steep vs. shallow slopes Watersheds with deep vs. shallow soils Watersheds with intense vs. extended rainfall Watersheds with forests vs. parking lots Watersheds with dams vs. not Big vs. little watersheds Watersheds with big shallow aquifers
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Basin Lag – Hatchet Creek
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Where is Stream Flow From? At any time, flow is a composite of water with different sources and residence times Some water is stored in the watershed for a very long time, some very short During low flow conditions, water is mostly old During storms, the contribution of new water increases How does an aquifer affect this?
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2 % 8 % 23 %
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