Rain_Lab_2011 - 65a 150a 269a 216a 56a 136a 5.00 1.60 1.00...

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Precipitation Measurement - Standard Gauge The Good: - Simple - Inexpensive The Bad: - Maintenance - Evaporation - No digital output - Spatial extent
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Precipitation Measurement - Weighing Gauge The Good: - Time series - Simple (mostly) The Bad: - Messy maintenance - Moving parts - No digital output - Spatial extent - Pretty expensive
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Data Logger Precipitation Measurement - Tipping Bucket The Good: - Digital time series - Accurate The Bad: - Snow? - Loss during tips
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Sensor frame Sensor cover Piezo detector Electronics + Software Precipitation Measurement - Piezoelectric The Good: - Very accurate - Digital data logger The Bad: - Expensive
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Listening to the music of  the ocean
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Acoustic Rain Gage The Good: - Very accurate - Spatially explicit - Digital data logger The Bad:
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Measurement Errors Placement (near structures) Wind Unequal distribution (rain is a spatial process) Placement:
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Wind
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1. Reduced effective catch area. 2. Rain gage will cause wind to lift and accelerate. Wind Error
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Double Alter Wind Shield
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Arithmetic Mean Thiessen Polygon Interpolation Dealing with Spatial Variability
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Unformatted text preview: 65a 150a 269a 216a 56a 136a 5.00 1.60 1.00 1.50 2.30 2.00 Total=678a (65x1.60)+(150x2.3)+(56x1.50)+(136x1.00)+(216x2.00)+(269x5.00) 678 = 3.61 X = 2.23 Doppler Radar A standard rain gage will have a sample area of ~ ft2, but radar will sample ~ hundreds mi2 Stick gage - $400 Tipping bucket - $1,000 Weighing - $5,000+ Doppler - $5,000,000 Icacos , Puerto Rico 423 mm/yr Pico del Este, Puerto Rico 340 mm/yr Monteverde, Costa Rica 350 mm/yr Cloud Drip Some tropical watershed research shows that cutting cloud forests actually reduces stream flow. Hail and sleet are frozen rain, where as snow crystals form when water vapor condenses directly into ice. As much as 75 percent of water supplies in the western United States are derived from snowmelt . 300 inches of snow that the Lake Tahoe area receives is equivalent to about 30 inches of rain. Snow Measurement Snow pack Core sampling Snow Pillow...
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Rain_Lab_2011 - 65a 150a 269a 216a 56a 136a 5.00 1.60 1.00...

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