topic4 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 4 LECTURE NOTES Topic 4: Seedless...

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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 4 LECTURE NOTES Topic 4: Seedless Vascular Plants (Ch. 29) I. Vascular Plants (overview) – plants with xylem and phloem – 7 to 9 living phyla, depending on who you talk to A. able to dominate most terrestrial habitats because of vascular tissues, waxy cuticle, and stomata B. conducting tissues (xylem and phloem) called vascular tissues 1. cylindrical or elongated cells that form network throughout plant 2. xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals upward typically dead cells typically at least partially lignified (having lignin , a highly branched polymer that makes cell wall more rigid) 3. phloem transports carbohydrates in solution throughout plant (down and up) living cells 4. only with vascular tissue do you have true leaves, stems, and roots C. sporophyte dominant D. vascular tissue is usually only found in the sporophyte generation E. seeds (when present) are highly resistant structures that increase ability of developing embryos to survive on land F. divided into seedless and seed-forming groups; seed-forming phyla covered in future outlines II. Seedless Vascular Plants (ferns and fern allies) A. sporophyte dominant and can grow independent of gametophyte in all B. gametophyte small, reduced, but still able to grow independent of sporophyte in all C. importance: dominated land during Carboniferous Period (354-290 million years ago), becoming a source of coal 1. coal is incompletely decomposed, highly compressed, carbon-rich rock derived mainly from the bodies of ancient seedless vascular plants (a type of “ fossil fuel ”) 2. fossil coal swamps are full of extinct plants 3. coal is a vital source of energy; burned for heat and for producing electricity (over half of U.S. electric production)
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topic4 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 4 LECTURE NOTES Topic 4: Seedless...

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