Topic6 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 6 LECTURE NOTES Topic 6 Angiosperms Flowers and Pollination Syndromes Phylum Anthophyta(Chs 30 38 I Phylum Anthophyta

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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 6 LECTURE NOTES Topic 6: Angiosperms, Flowers and Pollination Syndromes – Phylum Anthophyta (Chs. 30, 38) I. Phylum Anthophyta – flowering plants (antho – flower) A. also known as angiosperms (angeion – vessel or enclosure; sperma – seed) B. ovules enclosed within carpel (parent diploid sporophytic tissue) at pollination 1. the “vessel” is the carpel, which is a modified leaf 2. carpels, especially their enlarged basal portion (the ovary ), usually develop into fruit, which is unique to angiosperms C. about 250,000 known living species (dominant photosynthetic organisms on land) D. predominant source of human food E. most widespread and diverse plant phylum 1. range from microscopic to plants with leaves over 6 m long 2. flowers show incredible variety from species to species 3. variety of lifestyles includes parasites (ex.: mistletoe, dodder, beechdrops); mycotrophs (derive nutrients from fungi; ex.: Indian Pipe, others); epiphytes (ex.: some orchids); “carnivorous” (ex. pitcher plants, sundews, Venus flytrap) F. monophyletic group with seeds, refined xylem, double fertilization, and these synapomorphic characteristics: 1. seed contains endosperm 2. presence of flowers (modified stems and leaves) 3. true fruits G. evolutionary history 1. monophyletic group 2. origin about 140 MYA H. phylogeny 1. historically divided into two classes, dicots and monocots recent genetic analysis has shown that the traditional dicots are a paraphyletic group thus, the old classification scheme is being replaced 2. no conclusive cladogram has been produced for angiosperms studies are ongoing most modern cladograms have Amborella and water lilies as a sister group (or groups) to the rest of the angiosperms cladogram below from various class-level groupings have been proposed, the overall naming and formal classification within Phylum Anthophyta is still in a state of flux nevertheless, by far most of the living angiosperm species are found within two monophyletic groups, eudicots and monocots 3. eudicots most have embryos have two cotyledons (seed leaves) leaves have netlike veins flower part typically in multiples of 4 or 5 groups of vascular tissues in a ring pollen grains mostly with 3 or more apertures endosperm mostly used up in mature eudicot seeds about 175,000 living species; includes nearly all flowering trees and shrubs about a sixth are annuals (entire growth cycle in one year or less) 1 of 6
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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 6 LECTURE NOTES 4. monocots embryos have one cotyledon leaves have essentially parallel veins flower part typically in multiples of 3 groups of vascular tissues scattered pollen grains mostly with one aperture endosperm typically present in mature monocot seeds about 65,000 living species; no true wood, few annuals II. Why were (and are) angiosperms successful? A.
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course BIOL 1030 taught by Professor Folkerts during the Fall '07 term at Auburn University.

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Topic6 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 6 LECTURE NOTES Topic 6 Angiosperms Flowers and Pollination Syndromes Phylum Anthophyta(Chs 30 38 I Phylum Anthophyta

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