topic7 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 7 LECTURE NOTES Topic 7: Structure...

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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 7 LECTURE NOTES Topic 7: Structure and Function of Vascular Plant Cells and Tissues (Chs. 35-39) I. INTRODUCTION A. Most vascular plants continue growing throughout their lives 1. can achieve great size and attain great age 2. genetically identical individuals have propagated for generations B. Vascular plants have a fundamental unity of structure 1. two basic parts: root system, shoot system 2. three basic organ types: roots, stems, leaves 3. three basic tissue types: dermal, ground, vascular C. Vascular plants have a modular body plan (redundancy of units, general ability to replace units) II. ORGANIZATION OF THE VASCULAR PLANT BODY A. Vascular plants have a root system and a shoot system 1. root system penetrates the soil/substrate and anchors the plant absorbs water and ions for plant to use 2. shoot system stems : serve as framework and support to position leaves leaves : primary location for photosynthesis structures that serve reproductive functions (cones, flowers, fruits, seeds, etc.) B. meristem 1. give rise to all other cells of plant 2. composed of small, unspecialized cells that divide continually after division, one cell remains meristematic other cell becomes part of plant body; may or may not go through more mitosis before differentiating C. primary growth 1. initiated by apical meristems near tips of roots, shoots 2. lengthening of primary plant body results 3. produces “primary” tissues that are partially differentiated ground meristem – produces ground tissue protoderm – produces epidermis procambium – produces primary vascular tissue D. secondary growth 1. initiated by lateral meristems – internal meristematic cylinders 2. expand girth of plant (thickening of plant body) 3. produces “secondary” tissues; allows thick, woody trunk in some plants cork cambium – cork cells in bark of woody plants (outer bark) vascular cambium : secondary vascular tissue secondary phloem – closest to cork secondary xylem – internal; main component of wood 4. appears to have evolved independently in different plant groups III. PLANT TISSUES AND CELL TYPES A. 3 basic tissues: dermal tissue, ground tissue, vascular tissue B. dermal tissue , or epidermis 1. protective outermost cells, cover all parts of primary plant body 2. usually only one cell thick 3. cells usually flattened 4. covered on outside by waxy cuticle layer that varies in thickness (depending on the species, plant region, and environmental conditions 5. most lack chloroplasts 6. includes some specialized cell types for protection or absorption: guard cells, trichomes, root hairs 7. guard cells – paired cells flanking a stoma control opening of stoma have chloroplasts 1 of 6
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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 7 LECTURE NOTES stoma openings allow passage of gases, mainly CO 2 , O 2 , H 2 O vapor stomata occur on leaf epidermis, occasionally on stems and fruit stomata usually more numerous on underside of leaves
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topic7 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 7 LECTURE NOTES Topic 7: Structure...

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