topic9 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 9 LECTURE NOTES Topic 9 Plant...

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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 9 LECTURE NOTES Topic 9: Plant Growth and Development (Chs. 35, 38, and 39) I. DEVELOPMENTAL STRATEGIES VARY AMONG FUNGI, ANIMALS, AND PLANTS A. fungi grow with little specialization, except for reproduction B. animal development is usually complex but relatively inflexible (also well-studied) C. plant development 1. cells within plant do not shift positions during development (unlike animals) 2. plants keep growing tips and zones (meristems) – fantastic regeneration capacity 3. plant bodies and structures do not have a fixed size 4. hallmark is flexibility and adaptability outside of basic structural control 5. adaptive development is strongly influenced by the environment D. overview of plant development 1. embryonic development: early cell division and tissue formation; orientation 2. seed formation and germination 3. meristem development 4. morphogenesis (determination of final form) II. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT A. use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system to study plant development 1. member of mustard family; generally an unnamed weed (mouse-eared cress or wall cress some of its “common” names) 2. rapid life cycle: about 5 weeks from seed-to-seed 3. can self-fertilize (great for genetics, mutagenesis, and transformation) 4. sequenced genome; ~26,000 genes (one of smaller dicot genomes) 5. some call it the “fruit fly of plant research” B. pattern formation 1. determine location and differentiation of basic tissue types 2. mutants with altered development used to find genes regulating development 3. more than 50 known 4. some broad similarities to pattern formation control in animals C. organ formation 1. homeotic ( HOX ) genes similar set short, regulatory genes found in both plants and animals determine expression levels of other genes that actually make the proteins used for development and structure formation 2. well-studied HOX genes for flower development D. hormones are important throughout development III. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT A. early cell division 1. one cell from first division is small with dense cytoplasm divides rapidly and repeatedly to make a ball of cells becomes embryo 2. other cell from first division is larger divides rapidly and repeatedly to make an elongated structure called suspensor ; links embryo to nutrient tissue in seed 3. root –shoot axis determined near suspensor = future root (root meristem established) other end = future shoot (shoot meristem established) B. tissue formation from embryo ball 1. outermost cells – epidermal cells 2. middle layer – mostly ground tissue; also meristem 3. innermost cells – vascular tissue C. regulation of development 1. plant cells differentiate where they are formed 2. cells walls important in establishing identity (=determining development) D. mature embryo 1. wind up with root-shoot axis and cotyledon (s) growing out of shoot 1 of 5
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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 9 LECTURE NOTES 2. shoot apical meristem between cotyledons (may have
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topic9 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 9 LECTURE NOTES Topic 9 Plant...

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