chapter5 - Chapter 5: What are the major types of organic...

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BIOL 1020 – CHAPTER 5 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 5: What are the major types of organic molecules? 1. Discuss hydrolysis and condensation, and the connection between them. 2. Carbohydrates: what are they, and what are they used for? What terms are associated with them (including the monomers and the polymer bond name)? Give some examples of molecules in this group. 3. Lipids: what are they, and what are they used for? What terms are associated with them (including majors classes and bond names)? Give some examples of molecules in this group. 4. Polypeptides: what are they, and what are they used for? What terms are associated with them (including the monomers and the polymer bond name)? Give some examples of molecules in this group. 5. Discuss the four levels of protein structure. 6. Nucleic acids: what are they, and what are they used for? What terms are associated with them (including the monomers and the polymer bond name)? Give some examples of molecules in this group. 7. What are 5’ and 3’ ends? What does “antiparallel” mean in DNA? 8. What are ATP, cAMP, and NAD+? 1 of 5
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BIOL 1020 – CHAPTER 5 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 5: What are the major types of organic molecules? I. many biological molecules are polymers A. polymers are long chains or branching chains based on repeating subunits ( monomers ) 1. example: proteins (the polymer) are made from amino acids (the monomers) 2. example: nucleic acids (the polymer) are made from nucleotides (the monomers) B. very large polymers (hundreds of subunits or more) are called macromolecules C. polymers are degraded into monomers by hydrolysis (“break with water”) 1. typically requires an enzyme to occur at a decent rate 2. hydrogen from water is attached to one monomer, and a hydroxyl from water is attached to the other D. monomers are covalently linked to form polymers by condensation 1. also typically requires an enzyme to occur at a decent rate 2. typically the equivalent of a water molecule is removed (dehydration synthesis) II. The four major classes of biologically important organic molecules are: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins or polypeptides (and related compounds), and nucleic acids (and related compounds) III. carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and cellulose A. carbohydrates contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen B. the ratio works out so that carbohydrates are typically (CH 2 O) n C. carbohydrates are the main molecules in biological systems created for energy storage and consumed for energy production; some are also used as building materials D. grouped into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides 1. monosaccharides are simple sugars (a single monomer) have 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 carbons referred to as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and heptoses examples of pentoses include ribose and deoxyribose (part of nucleic acids) examples of hexoses include glucose , fructose, and galactose; glucose is most abundant Examine the structural formulas for glucose, fructose, and galactose. Note that they are all isomers of each other
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course BIOL 1020 taught by Professor Dute during the Fall '06 term at Auburn University.

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chapter5 - Chapter 5: What are the major types of organic...

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