chapter8 - BIOL 1020 CHAPTER 8 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 8:...

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BIOL 1020 – CHAPTER 8 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules (J) and calories (cal)? 3. The laws of thermodynamics are sometimes stated as: In energy conversions, “You can’t win, and you can’t break even.” Explain. 4. Differentiate between: anabolism and catabolism exergonic and endergonic reactions 5. Why is ATP so darned important? What is a phosphorylated intermediate? How much ATP is in a cell at any given time? Why must cells keep a high ATP/ADP ratio? 6. What are redox reactions used for in cells? How (generally) can you tell which of two similar compounds is reduced and which is oxidized? Give some examples of compounds commonly used in redox reactions in cells. 7. What do enzymes do for cells, and how do they do it? Be sure to use the following terms: catalyst (or catalyze); activation energy, enzyme-substrate complex, active site, induced fit 8. What are the four main things that enzymes do to lower activation energy? 9. How are enzymes named (what suffixes indicate an enzyme)? 10. Explain the terms cofactor, apoenzyme, and coenzyme. 11.Discuss the effects of temperature and pH on enzyme activity. 12.What is a metabolic pathway? 1 of 6
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BIOL 1020 – CHAPTER 8 LECTURE NOTES 13.How do cells regulate enzyme activity? Include the terms inhibitors, activators, and allosteric site; also, differentiate between irreversible an reversible inhibition and between competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. 2 of 6
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BIOL 1020 – CHAPTER 8 LECTURE NOTES 1. Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism Why do organisms need energy? How do organisms manage their energy needs? I. Energy and thermodynamics A. Living organisms require energy to do work , any change in state or motion of matter 1. energy can be expressed in units of work (kJ) or heat energy (kcal); 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ 2. energy can change forms ( energy conversion ) 3. organisms carry out transformation in energy forms between potential energy (capacity to do work) and kinetic energy (energy of motion, actively performing work) 4. organisms commonly use chemical bonds for storage and transfer of (potential) energy 5. work is required for the processes of life B. Two laws of thermodynamics describe the constraints on energy usage 1. First law: the total amount of energy (+ matter) in a closed system remains constant (principle of conservation of energy) The universe is a closed system Living things are open systems 2. Second law: in every energy conversion, some energy is converted to heat energy that is lost to the surroundings, and thus cannot be used for work Also can be stated as: Every energy conversion increased the entropy of the universe. Energy converted to heat in the surroundings increases entropy (spreading of energy)
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course BIOL 1020 taught by Professor Dute during the Fall '06 term at Auburn University.

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chapter8 - BIOL 1020 CHAPTER 8 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 8:...

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