HW4_New - CHM 2045 FOURTH PROBLEM SET INSTRUCTOR: DON...

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HW4_New.wpd 11/8/10 CHM 2045 FOURTH PROBLEM SET INSTRUCTOR: DON SWIETER OFFICE: K-223 PHONE: 395-5303 QUESTIONS ABOUT ACIDS AND BASES 1. What is the definition of a Brønsted-Lowry acid? What is the definition of a Brønsted-Lowry base? 2. What chemical feature MUST be present IF a species is to function as a Brønsted-Lowry acid? This is not to say that any chemical that possesses this feature WILL function as a Brønsted-Lowry acid. 3. What chemical feature MUST be present IF a species is to function as a Brønsted-Lowry base? This is not to say that any chemical that possesses this feature WILL function as a Brønsted-Lowry base. 4. What are the products of any acid/base reaction? 5. What are the conjugate acids of the following species? 23 a) H O b) OH c) NH d) X e) HX SS 6. What are the conjugate bases of the following species? 233 a) H O b) OH c) NH d) HX e) H O S + 7. In terms of their reaction with water, how are strong acids defined? How are weak acids defined? 8. Write the equation for the reaction of a strong acid, HX, with water. Write the equation for the reaction of a weak acid, HX, with water. What is the difference between the two equations? Explain. 9. What are the six common strong acids? Memorize them! How then, are all other acids classified? 10. The processing of determining the identity and concentration of solutes present in appreciable amounts in a solution is called inventorying . Inventory the following solutions. 32 42 4 a) 0.25 M NaCl b) 0.50 M Ca(NO ) c) 0.15 M (NH ) SO 11. What is the inventory of 1M HCl? What is the inventory of a 1 M solution of any strong acid, HX? A 1 M solution of any weak acid, HY? 12. Explain why liquid HCl does not conduct electricity but a 1M HCl solution does conduct. 232 13. How would the conductivity of a 1M HCl solution differ from the conductivity of a 1M HC H O solution? Explain. 14. If the conductivity of an aqueous solution of acid HZ were such that the 150 watt bulb lit brightly while the aqueous solution of acid HY lit only the 7.5 watt bulb dimly, what conclusion can one safely draw from these observations about the relative acid strengths of HZ and HY? Explain. 15. In terms of their reaction with water, how are strong bases defined? How are weak bases defined?
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2 16. Write the equation for the reaction of a strong base, B, with water. Write the equation for the reaction of a weak base, B, with water. What is the difference between the two equations? Explain. 17. What are the ten common strong bases? Memorize them! How then, are all other bases classified? 2 18. What is the inventory of a 1M Na O solution? What is the inventory of a 1 M solution of any strong base? A 1 M solution of any weak base? 33 19. Explain why liquid NH does not conduct electricity but a 1M NH solution does conduct (slightly). 20. Explain why conductivity can be used to determine the relative strengths amongst a group of molecular acids or amongst a group of molecular bases but cannot be used to determine the relative strengths amongst a group of ionic acids or amongst a group of ionic bases.
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Weinstein during the Fall '11 term at Santa Fe College.

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HW4_New - CHM 2045 FOURTH PROBLEM SET INSTRUCTOR: DON...

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