Hw4ans_New - CHM 2045 FOURTH ANSWER KEY INSTRUCTOR: DON...

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Hw4ans_New.wpd 11/8/10 CHM 2045 FOURTH ANSWER KEY INSTRUCTOR: DON SWIETER OFFICE: K-223 PHONE: 395-5303 QUESTIONS ABOUT ACIDS AND BASES 1. A Brønsted-Lowry acid is defined as a proton (H ) donor. + A Brønsted-Lowry base is defined as a proton (H ) acceptor. + 2. In order to function as a proton (H ) donor the species must have at least one H in the formula. + 3. In order to function as a proton (H ) acceptor the species must have at least one unshared pair of + electrons to bond to the incoming proton (H ). + 4. The products are the conjugate acid (of the reactant base) and the conjugate base (of the reactant acid). The conjugate acid is defined as the acid created when a reactant base accepts one H . The + conjugate base is defined as the base created when a reactant acid donates one H . + 32 4 2 5. a. H O b. H O c. NH d . H X e . HX +++ 22 6. a. OH b. O c. NH d . X e . HO && 2 7. In terms of their reaction with water, a strong acid is defined as any acid that reacts with water to 3 form H O and the conjugate base to a large extent . A weak acid is then defined as any acid that + 3 reacts with water to form H O and the conjugate base to a small extent . + 23 8. Reaction of a strong acid and water: HX + H O xxv HO + X + & Reaction of a weak acid and water: HX + H O + X + & There is no difference between the equation for a strong acid reacting with water and the equation for a weak acid reacting with water. The only difference between a strong and a weak acid is the extent of reaction (see problem 7). 324 4 9. The six common strong acids are: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO , H SO , and HClO . The other acids are classified as weak acids. 10. a. [Na ] = [Cl ] = 0.25 M b. [Ca ] = 0.50 M and [Cl ] = 1.0 M + & +2 & 44 c. [NH ] = 0.30 M and [SO ] = 0.15 M + & 2 3 11. The inventory of 1 M HCl is [H O ] = 1 M and [Cl ] = 1 M. + & 3 The inventory of a 1 M solution of any strong acid, HX, is [H O ] = 1 M and [X ] = 1 M. + & The inventory of a 1 M solution of any weak acid, HY, is [HY] = 1 M. 12. Liquid HCl does not conduct because HCl is a molecule and therefore without being involved in some kind of ionization process (like an acid/base reaction) the liquid HCl contains no ions to support conductivity.
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2 When the HCl was added to the water to form the 1 M HCl solution a chemical reaction occurred 3 to a large extent to form H O and Cl . Thus, the solution contains many ions to support + & conductivity. 232 13. Although HCl and HC H O both react as acids with water and the initial amount of HCl and HC H O were the same, the resulting solutions are very different. As mentioned above, HCl reacts 3 with water to a large extent to form H O and Cl ions and thus the resulting solution contains many + & 3 ions to support conductivity. On the other hand, HC H O reacts with water to form H O and + CHO ions to only a small extent and therefore the resulting solution contains only a relatively & small number of ions to support conductivity. Therefore, 1 M HCl is a good conductor of electricity and 1 M HC H O is a poor conductor of electricity.
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Hw4ans_New - CHM 2045 FOURTH ANSWER KEY INSTRUCTOR: DON...

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