7 Feudalism Slides

7 Feudalism Slides - GRECO ROMAN Antique Christian Germanic...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/4/2009 GRECO ROMAN Antique Christian Germanic Germanic roots — comitatus Tacitus: “The chief fights for victory; his vassals fight for their chief” Western Lay Piety Monasticism Monasticism Localized Kingdoms Vassalage (Feudalism) JUDEO Vassalage Medieval Context—local defense Context— Manorialism CHRISTIAN 8th cy Carolingian major domus: vassalage (service) + benefice (reward) (reward) = cavalry Benefice Roman roots — beneficium Land grants for loyal military service Though not this stylized, medieval European warfare depended on heavily armored cavalry 1 3/4/2009 A vassal received a fief from his lord as a benefice, to free him to devote time to military service Sealed with a “kiss of peace,” the feudal relationship developed into a formal ceremony in which the vassal took two vows: Auxilium Time Time (40 days/yr) Court Court service Ransom Ransom $ Weddings Weddings / Knighthood $ Consilium Good counsel Good Subinfeudation Subinf. of Ireland, 1180 A vassal could be a lord over vassals of his own, who could be lords over their vassals A king was lord only, and a lord could become a king . . . Lord‐ Kings Otto I (Saxon) rose to fame after Battle of Lechfeld and consolidated his authority with church help, but his kingdom grew into an empire too large to manage 2 3/4/2009 Lord‐Kings Lord‐ Kings Hugh Capet (Frankish) was a local king, but his Capetian dynasty ruled a fragmented France for centuries Becoming King, a Guide for Local Lords Step 1: Control the Law Kings worked with their witan to shape the law and how it was applied Alfred the Great (Anglo‐Saxon) unified the A‐S monarchy with an elected (if fixed) kingship A‐S Kings divided realm into Shires and shires were divided into Hundreds Shire Courts served the aristocracy Hundred Courts served the general population 3 3/4/2009 Kings appointed an official— official—the shire reeve— reeve—to administer a shire, issue the king’s orders, and report back to him Chancery offices converted the king’s orders into writs for the shire reeve to carry out locally Step 2: Bind the Aristocracy to You First sons inherit Other sons hit the road—or each other road— Juvenes had a few options to make their own way Monastery? Vassalage? Grail Hunt? Kings turned Juvenes into armies 1831 map of Monmouthshire, Wales Becoming King, a Guide for Local Lords Step 3: Control the Economy Kings promoted trade and built towns to raise funds via taxes Tribal Hidage—tax on a hide defined by quality, size, and location of a fighting man’s land Scutage— Scutage—”shield money”—tax on vassals in exchange money”— for fighting Farm— Farm—tax on peasant property padded to provide salary for tax collector RESTORMEL CASTLE: 11 TH CY ENGLISH MOTTE-AND-BAILEY CASTLE 4 3/4/2009 A medieval castle’s L chair, a knight’s table, and the Garderobe. Medieval castles were fortresses, not palaces. Comfort was far less important than security. The earls’ possessions in England, 1065 – note the extensive holdings of the Godwinson family 5 3/4/2009 WILLIAM’S CAVALRY OF VASSALS ATTACKING THE ANGLO-SAXONS’ SHIELD WALL. NOTE THE CHAIN MAIL, LANCES, SHIELDS Path of William of Normandy’s conquest of England, 1066 BAYEUX TAPESTRY 6 3/4/2009 SCENES FROM THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY The Bayeux tapestry is preserved and displayed in Bayeux, in Normandy, France. It is over 70 meters long, and is composed entirely of embroidered scenes and narration A visualization of the castle culture of England and Wales, particularly in the wake of 1066 7 3/4/2009 Feudalism Quiz: Write a paragraph about castles in the medieval west that discusses three things: their architecture (what is the style of castle in this slide?), their purpose, and 8 ...
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