0470421312 - Chapter 1 Beginning at the Very Beginning:...

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Chapter 1 Beginning at the Very Beginning: Pre-Pre-Calculus In This Chapter ± Brushing up on order of operations ± Solving equalities ± Graphing equalities and inequalities ± Finding distance, midpoint, and slope P re-calculus is the stepping stone for Calculus. It’s the final hurdle after all those years of math: Pre-algebra, Algebra, Geometry, and Algebra II. Now all you need is Pre-calculus to get to that ultimate goal — Calculus. And as you may recall from your Algebra II class, you were subjected to much of the same material you saw in Algebra and even Pre-algebra (just a couple steps up in terms of complexity — but really the same stuff). As the stepping stone, pre-calculus begins with certain concepts that you’re expected to solidly understand. Therefore, we’re starting here, at the very beginning, reviewing those concepts. If you feel you’re already an expert at everything algebra, feel free to skip past this chapter and get the full swing of pre-calc going. If, however, you need to review, then read on. If you don’t remember some of the concepts we discuss in this chapter, or even in this book, you can pick up another For Dummies math book for review. The fundamentals are impor- tant. That’s why they’re called fundamentals. Take the time now to review — it will save you countless hours of frustration in the future! Reviewing Order of Operations: The Fun in Fundamentals You can’t put on your sock after you put on your shoe, can you? The same concept applies to mathematical operations. There’s a specific order to which operation you perform first, second, third, and so on. At this point, it should be second nature. However, because the concept is so important as we continue into more complex calculations, we review it here. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL
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8 Part I: Foundation (And We Don’t Mean Makeup!) Please excuse who? Oh, yeah, you remember this one — my dear Aunt Sally! The old mnemonic still stands, even as you get into more complicated problems. Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally is a mnemonic for the acronym PEMDAS, which stands for: ± P arentheses (including absolute value, brackets, and radicals) ± E xponents ± M ultiplication and D ivision (from left to right) ± A ddition and S ubtraction (from left to right) The order in which you solve algebraic problems is very important. Always work what’s in the parentheses first, then move on to the exponents, followed by the multi- plication and division (from left to right), and finally, the addition and subtraction (from left to right). Because we’re reviewing fundamentals, now is also a good time to do a quick review of properties of equality. When simplifying expressions, it’s helpful to recall the properties of numbers: ± Reflexive property: a = a . For example, 4 = 4.
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This note was uploaded on 12/09/2011 for the course CHEM 1 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '11 term at Simon Fraser.

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0470421312 - Chapter 1 Beginning at the Very Beginning:...

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