solut - Solutions A Chem 1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower...

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Unformatted text preview: Solutions A Chem 1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Solutions 2 2 Types of solutions 2 2.1 Gaseous solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Solutions of gases in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 Solutions of liquids in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4 Solutions of molecular solids in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.5 Solutions of ionic solids in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Methods of expressing the concentration of a solution 7 3.1 Parts-per concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Weight/volume and volume/volume basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3 Molarity: mole/volume basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.4 Mole fraction: mole/mole basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.5 Molality: mole/weight basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 Colligative properties: escaping tendency of the solvent 10 4.1 Vapor pressure of solutions: Raoults law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2 Boiling point elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3 Freezing point depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4 Colligative properties and molecular weight determinations . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5 Solutions of volatile substances 14 5.1 Solutions of volatile liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2 Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3 Solutions of gases in liquids: Henrys law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.4 Raoults law and Henrys law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 CONTENTS 6 Osmosis and osmotic pressure 19 6.1 Diffusion and osmotic ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.2 Osmotic pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.3 Effects of temperature and concentration on osmotic pressure . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6.4 Physiological aspects of osmosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.5 Molecular weight determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7 Ions in aqueous solution 23 7.1 Water: a familiar but extraordinary liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Dipole moment of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Dielectric constant of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.2 Ionic species in aqueous solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Hydration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Hydration ....
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This note was uploaded on 12/09/2011 for the course CHEM 1 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '11 term at Simon Fraser.

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solut - Solutions A Chem 1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower...

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