Chapter 9 interrupts the main story in order to show, in short staccato scenes, some of the suffering of the natives in Shanty Town. The physical needs of these people leave them little time to devote themselves to campaigns for justice. They barely have the energy and money to keep themselves alive, and their human sufferings are actually more effective as a social message than all of the loud talking by John Kumalo.The voices in this chapter serve as a chorus to broaden the area of the book and as a reminder that, although the story of Stephen and Absalom is in the foreground, it is only part of a far larger story. This chapter illuminates the symbolism of the novel's first chapter, for this is the erosion of the raw, red earth, now in terms of human suffering and blood. The underplaying of the mother's grief over
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short staccato scenes, John Kumalo, Shanty Town., good Reverend Msimangu, young director