In Chapter 4 - InChapter4,asinChapter1,, ontheland,. ,...

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In Chapter 4, as in Chapter 1, the landscape plays a symbolic role, for the slag heaps are like a sore  on the land, the product of mines owned by whites. The picture of poverty and disintegration already  shown is broadened here in the conversation of the clergymen, and the consequences of these  conditions (crime, delinquency, and immorality of all kinds) are presented by both the clergymen and  the newspaper headlines. Undoubtedly, though, the most important element introduced here is fear. Stephen has shown  timidity and fear in the face of this overawing white world he has encountered for the first time. But  nothing has been said before of the fear on the other side: the fear the whites feel, fear fed by  memories of the great Zulu wars of the past, and the knowledge of how greatly the blacks outnumber  the whites.
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