One of the dominant motifs throughout the novel is that of the fears each character feels in various situations. Even the people whom Kumalo meets in his search for his son seem governed by some type of inexpressible fear. Kumalo leaves on his journey filled with fear and foreboding.In Chapter 4, as in Chapter 1, the landscape plays a symbolic role, for the slag heaps are like a sore on the land, the product of mines owned by whites. The picture of poverty and disintegration already shown is broadened here in the conversation of the clergymen, and the consequences of these conditions (crime, delinquency, and immorality of all kinds) are presented by both the clergymen and the newspaper headlines.Undoubtedly, though, the most important element introduced here is fear. Stephen has shown timidity and fear in the face of this overawing white world he has encountered for the first time. But
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