The state of French drama during the nineteenth century was as tumultuous as was the state of French politics. Victor Hugo broke the restrictive chains of French classicism with the famous "Preface" to Cromwell (1827), the manifesto of romanticism. Over the next 25 years, his dramas employed action as well as other dramatic devices denied to the classicists. During this period of literary and political upheaval, the schools of romanticism, naturalism, symbolism, and realism developed in France. Yet Cyrano de Bergerac does not really fit into any of these categories. Some have considered it a revival or culmination of romantic drama, but it did not truly revive this school nor continue it. Cyrano was presented in 1897 for the first time, half a century after Hugo's last effort, and is not a part of any school or movement. Rather,
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course ENG 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at University of Houston.