Emotions, Stress,and HealthEmotions are psychological responses that involve an interplay among (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behavior, and (3) conscious experience.James and Lange argued that we feel emotion after we notice our bodily responses; Cannon and Bard contended that we feel emotion when our body responds. Stanley Schachter's two-factor theory states that to experience emotion we must be aroused and must cognitively label the emotion. Although some psychologists agree that emotions arise from our interpretations and inferences, others maintain that some simple emotional responses occur without any conscious processing. Although the manifestations of physical arousal that occur with the different emotions are for the most part indistinguishable, researchers have discovered subtle differences in brain circuits, finger temperatures, and hormones. In using physiological indicators to detect lies, the polygraph does better than chance but not nearly well enough to justify its widespread use.
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