Gender 10. Describe the impact of sex chromosomes and sex hormones on biological development. Biological sex is determined by the twenty-third pair of chromosomes, the sex chromosomes. The member of the pair inherited from the mother is an X chromosome. The X (female) or Y (male) chromosome that comes from the father determines the child's sex. The Y chromosome triggers the production of the principal male sex hormone, testosterone, which in turn triggers the development of external male sex organs. 11. Discuss the importance of gender roles, and explain how social and cognitive factors contribute to gender identity and gender-typing. A role refers to a cluster of prescribed actions-the behaviors we expect of those who occupy a particular social position. The fact that gender roles-our expectations about the way men and women behave-vary across cultures and time illustrates the social construction of gender. For example, in nomadic societies of food-gathering people, there is little division of labor by sex. Thus, boys and girls receive much the same upbringing.
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