Intelligence - Intelligence 1. Trace the origins of...

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Intelligence 1. Trace the origins of intelligence testing, and describe the Stern formula for the intelligence quotient. Many experts view intelligence as the mental abilities needed to select, adapt to, and shape environments. In the early 1900s Alfred Binet with Theodore Simon developed an intelligence test that assessed mental age and helped predict children's future progress in the Paris school system. Lewis Terman of Stanford University adapted Binet's test as the Stanford-Binet; he had found that the Paris-developed age norms did not work well with California schoolchildren. William Stern derived the intelligence quotient, or IQ, for Terman's test. The IQ was simply a person's mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. Today, we refer to intelligence scores, which are based on an average score of 100 for individuals in the same age group. 2. Discuss whether intelligence should be considered a general mental ability or many specific abilities and describe its relationship to creativity. Psychologists agree that people have specific abilities, such as verbal and mathematical aptitudes. However, they debate whether a general intelligence (g) factor runs through them all. Factor analysis has identified several clusters of mental abilities, including verbal intelligence, spatial ability, and reasoning ability. Still, there seems to be a slight tendency for those who excel in one of the clusters to score well on others. Evidence that brain damage may diminish one ability but not others, as well as studies of savant syndrome, led Howard Gardner to propose his theory of multiple intelligences. Similarly, Robert Sternberg and Richard Wagner distinguish among analytical, practical, and creative intelligence. 3. Describe modern tests of mental abilities such as the WAIS, and distinguish
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Intelligence - Intelligence 1. Trace the origins of...

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