Lower - and speeding up when awake 3 The Cerebellum 1 The...

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Lower-Level Brain Structures 1. The Brainstem 1. The brain stem is the oldest and innermost region where the spinal cord enters the skull and swells slightly. 2. The medulla is what controls your heartbeat and breathing. 3. Inside the brain stem between the ears is the reticular formation. It’s a finger shaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord to the thalamus. 4. The reticular formation filters incoming stimuli and relays important information to other areas. It also helps control arousal. 2. The Thalamus 1. Above the brainstem is the brain’s sensory switchboard, a joined pair of egg- shaped structures called the thalamus. 2. It receives all the information from the senses except for smell. It also directs orders from the higher brain regions. 3. It also coordinates the brain’s electrical oscillations slowing down during sleeping
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Unformatted text preview: and speeding up when awake. 3. The Cerebellum 1. The cerebellum extends from the rear of the brainstem and is like two wrinkled hemispheres. 2. It enables one type of nonverbal learning and memory but it also coordinates voluntary movement. 3. An injured cerebellum could lead to difficulty in walking, keeping balance, or shaking hands. 4. The Limbic System 1. The doughnut shaped neural system that is at the border of the brain’s older parts and cerebral hemisphere is the limbic system. 1.1. The Amygdala 1.1.1. The two almond-shaped neural clusters are called the amygdala. They influence aggression and fear. 1.2. The Hypothalamus 1.2.1. The structure that lies just below the thalamus is called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus monitors blood chemistry and takes orders from other parts of the brain....
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