Motivational Concepts

Motivational Concepts - Rather than reducing a...

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Motivational Concepts 1. Define motivation, and identify several theories of motivated behavior. A motivation is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it toward a goal. Under Darwin's influence, early theorists viewed behavior as being controlled by biological forces, such as instincts. When it became clear that people were naming, not explaining, various behaviors by calling them instincts, this approach fell into disfavor. The idea that genes predispose species-typical behavior is still influential in evolutionary behavior. Psychologists next turned to a drive-reduction theory of motivation. Most physiological needs create aroused psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs. The aim of drive reduction is internal stability, or homeostasis. Furthermore, we are not only pushed by internal drives but we are also pulled by external incentives.
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Unformatted text preview: Rather than reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension, some motivated behaviors increase arousal. Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that too little or too much stimulation can motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal. 2. Describe Maslow's hierarchy of motives. Maslow's hierarchy of needs expresses the idea that, until satisfied, some motives are more compelling than others. At the base of the hierarchy are our physiological needs, such as for food, water, and shelter. Only if these are met are we prompted to meet our need for safety, and then to meet the uniquely human needs to give and receive love, to belong and be accepted, and to enjoy self-esteem. Beyond this, said Maslow, lies the highest of human needs: to actualize one's full potential....
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