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Psychotherapy - in new more positive ways Research on the...

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Psychotherapy The major psychotherapies derive from the psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive perspectives. Half of all therapists take an eclectic approach, using a blend of therapies. Psychoanalysts use free association and the interpretation of dreams and resistances to help their patients gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorders and to work through the accompanying feelings. Humanistic therapy focuses on clients' conscious feelings and on their taking responsibility for their own growth. Person-centered therapists use active listening to express genuineness, acceptance, and empathy. Behavior therapists emphasize the direct modification of problem behaviors. They use systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning, and they may also apply operant conditioning principles with techniques such as token economies. Cognitive therapies aim to change self-defeating thinking by training people to view themselves
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Unformatted text preview: in new, more positive ways. Research on the effectiveness of therapy indicates that people who receive therapy are more likely to improve than the untreated. However, the friendly counsel of paraprofessionals also tends to produce more improvement than occurs with untreated people. Administration of antipsychotic, antianxiety, and antidepressant drugs constitutes the most widely used biomedical therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy, although controversial, continues to be an effective treatment for many severely depressed people who do not respond to drug therapy. Psychosurgery is rarely used to alleviate specific problems largely because the effects are irreversible and potentially drastic. Preventive mental health experts aim to change oppressive, esteem-destroying environments into more benevolent, nurturing environments that foster individual growth and self-confidence....
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