The Social-Cognitive Perspective 13. Describe the social-cognitive perspective on personality, and explain reciprocal determinism. The social-cognitive perspective applies principles of learning, cognition, and social behavior to personality, with particular emphasis on the ways in which our personalities influence and are influenced by our interaction with the environment. It assumes reciprocal determinism-that personal-cognitive factors combine with the environment to influence behavior. Discuss the important consequences of personal control, learned helplessness, and optimism. People who perceive an internal rather than an external sense of locus of control achieve more in school, are more independent, and are less depressed. Moreover, they are better able to delay gratification and cope with various stresses. Faced with repeated traumatic events over which they have no control, people come to feel helpless, hopeless, and depressed. Their learned helplessness may result in passivity in
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