Vision 4. Explain the visual process, including the stimulus input, the structure of the eye, and the transformation of light energy into neural activity. The energies we experience as visible light are a thin slice from the broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. Our sensory experience of light is determined largely by the light energy's wavelength, which determines the hue of a color, and its intensity, which influences brightness. After light enters the eye through the pupil, whose size is regulated by the iris, a camera-like lens focuses the rays by changing its curvature, a process called accommodation, on the retina. The retina's rods and cones (most of which are clustered around the fovea) convert the light energy into neural signals. These signals activate the neighboring bipolar cells, which in turn activate the neighboring ganglion cells, whose axons converge to form the optic nerve that carries information to the brain. Where the optic nerve leaves the eye there are no receptor cells-creating a blind spot. The cones enable vision of color and fine
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