Waking Consciousness

Waking Consciousness - attention. 3. Contrast conscious and...

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Waking Consciousness 1. 1. Discuss the nature of consciousness and its significance in the history of psychology. Psychology began as the study of consciousness. But the difficulty of scientifically studying consciousness led many psychologists to turn to direct observations of behavior and by the middle of the twentieth century, psychology was defined as the science of behavior. By 1960, mental concepts began to reenter psychology, and today investigating states of mind is again one of psychology's pursuits. Advances in neuroscience made it possible to relate brain activity to various mental states-waking, sleeping, dreaming. For most psychologists today consciousness is our awareness of ourselves and our environment. 2. Describe how our perceptions are directed and limited by selective attention. Selective attention means that at any moment awareness focuses on only a limited aspect of all that we are capable of experiencing. The cocktail party effect is an example of selective
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Unformatted text preview: attention. 3. Contrast conscious and subconscious information processing. Conscious information processing enables us to exert voluntary control and to communicate our mental states to others. It takes place in sequence, is relatively slow, and has limited capacity. Beneath the surface faster subconscious processing occurs simultaneously on many parallel tracks. For example, when we meet someone, we instantly and unconsciously react to the gender, race, and appearance, and then become aware of our response. 4. Discuss the content and potential functions of daydreams and fantasies, and describe the fantasy-prone personality. Most daydreams involve the familiar details of our lives-perhaps imagining an alternative approach to a task we are performing or picturing ourselves explaining to an instructor why a paper will be late. Daydreaming can be adaptive; it can help us prepare for future events and may substitute for impulsive behavior....
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