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Social and Personality Growt3

Social and Personality Growt3 - Social and Personality...

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Social and Personality Growth: Age 0–2 During infancy and toddlerhood, children easily attach to others. They normally form their initial  primary relationship with their parents and other family members. Because infants depend  completely on their parents for food, clothing, warmth, and nurturing, Erik Erikson noted that the  primary task during this first  psychosocial  stage of life is to learn to  trust  (rather than to  mistrust the caregivers. The child's first few years—including forming relationships and developing an  organized sense of self—set the stage for both immediate and later psychosocial development,  including the emergence of  prosocial behavior , or the capacity to help, cooperate, and share with  others. (Table  1  contrasts Erikson's model of psycho-social development with Sigmund Freud's  model.)  TABLE 1 Contrasting Models of Psychosocial Development Period (Age) Freud's Stage Erikson's Task or Crisis Infancy (0–1) Oral Trust vs. mistrust Toddlerhood and early childhood (1–3) Anal Autonomy vs. shame Early childhood (3–6) Phallic Initiative vs. guilt Middle childhood (7–11) Latency Industry vs. inferiority Adolescence (12–19) Genital Identity vs. confusion Early adulthood (20–45) Intimacy vs. isolation Middle adulthood (45–65) Generativity vs. stagnation Late adulthood (65+) Integrity vs. despair Personality  includes those stable psychological characteristics that define each human being as  unique. Both children and adults evidence personality  traits  (long-term characteristics, such as 
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temperament) and  states  (changeable characteristics, such as moodiness). While considerable  debate continues over the etiology of personality, most experts agree that personality traits and  states form early in life. A combination of genetics and psychological and social influences likely  influence the formation of personality.  Infants are typically  egocentric , or self-centered. They primarily concern themselves with satisfying  their physical desires (for example, hunger), which psychoanalyst  Sigmund Freud  theorized is a  form of self-pleasuring. Because infants are particularly interested in activities involving the mouth  (sucking, biting), Freud labeled the first year of life as the  oral stage  of  psychosexual  development . (Freud's model of psychosexual development appears in Table 
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