Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate - phosphate group using energy...

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  is a common  source of activation energy for metabolic reactions. In  Figure 1, the wavy lines between the last two  phosphate groups of the ATP molecule indicate high- energy bonds. When ATP supplies energy to a  reaction, it is usually the energy in the last bond that  is delivered to the reaction. In the process of giving up  this energy, the last phosphate bond is broken and  the ATP molecule is converted to ADP (adenosine  diphosphate) and a phosphate group (indicated by  P i ). In contrast, new ATP molecules are assembled by  phosphorylation when ADP combines with a 
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Unformatted text preview: phosphate group using energy obtained from some energy-rich molecule (like glucose). Cofactors are nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes. A holoenzyme is the union of the cofactor and the enzyme (called an apoenzyme when part of a holoenzyme). If cofactors are organic, they are called coenzymes and usually function to donate or accept some component of a reaction, often electrons. Some vitamins are coenzymes or components of coenzymes. Inorganic cofactors are often metal ions, such as Fe ++ . Figure 1. The high-energy bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)....
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Adenosine triphosphate - phosphate group using energy...

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