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Anaemia Classification - inadequate intake or insufficient...

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Anaemia Classification Anaemia is a haematological abnormality and should not be considered a final diagnosis. As such a pathological cause for anaemia must be found. The first step in finding a pathological cause is to classify the anaemia according to red cell size: Microcytic anaemia: Microcytic anaemia is primarily a result of hemoglobin synthesis failure/insufficiency, which could be caused by several etiologies: Heme synthesis defect o Iron deficiency anemia o Anemia of chronic disease (more commonly presenting as normocytic anemia) Globin synthesis defect o alpha-, and beta-thalassemia o HbE syndrome o HbC syndrome o and various other unstable hemoglobin diseases Sideroblastic defect o Hereditary sideroblastic anemia o Acquired sideroblastic anemia, including lead toxicity o Reversible sideroblastic anemia Macrocytic anaemia: Megaloblastic anaemia, the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid (or both). Deficiency in folate and/or vitamin B12 can be due either to
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Unformatted text preview: inadequate intake or insufficient absorption. Folate deficiency normally does not produce neurological symptoms, while B12 deficiency does. • Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is required to absorb vitamin B12 from food. A lack of intrinsic factor may arise from an autoimmune condition targeting the parietal cells (atrophic gastritis) that produce intrinsic factor or against intrinsic factor itself. These lead to poor absorption of vitamin B12. • Macrocytic anemia can also be caused by removal of the functional portion of the stomach, such as during gastric bypass surgery, leading to reduced vitamin B12/folate absorption. Therefore one must always be aware of anemia following this procedure. • Hypothyroidism • Alcoholism commonly causes a macrocytosis, although not specifically anemia. Other types of Liver Disease can also cause macrocytosis. • Methotrexate, zidovudine, and other drugs that inhibit DNA replication....
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