Anaemia - 1 Decreased red-cell life span(haemolytic 2 Blood...

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Anaemia Anaemia is when Hb falls below the reference range for individuals age and sex, it is often accompanied by fall in red cell count, and reduction in packed cell volume. Dehydration may mask anaemia, and overhydration may mimic it. Increased 2,3,DPG production shifts O2 curve to right, increasing O2 release in tissues. Additionally, the heart increases stroke volume and also rate in compensation. Symptoms Easy fatigability Lassitude Dyspnoea on exertion Palpitations Angina and intermittent claudication Headache Vertigo Light-headedness Visual disturbance Drowsiness Anorexia Nausea Menstrual disturbance Loss of libido Signs Tachycardia Pallor Wide pulse pressure with capillary pulsation Heamatinic murmurs Signs of congestive failure
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Haemorrhages and occasional retinal exudates. If severe proteinuria: impaired renal function, low-grade fever Mechanisms of anaemia
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Unformatted text preview: 1. Decreased red-cell life span (haemolytic) 2. Blood loss 3. Congenital defect (sickle cell, hereditary spherocytosis) 4. Acquired (malaria, some drugs) 5. Impairment of red-cell formation 6. Insufficient erythropoiesis 7. Haematinic insufficiency (iron, folate, B12, protein) 8. Chronic disease (infection, renal, liver, collagen) 9. Endocrine deficiency (hypo T4, hypotestes, hypoanterior pituitary) 10. Myelotoxic agents 11. Ineffective erythropoiesis 12. Marrow infiltration (carcinoma, myeloma, leukaemia, lymphoma, myelofibrosis, lysosomal storage disease 13. Miscellaneous (non-haematinic deficiency megaloblastic anemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, malaria) 14. Pooling and destruction of red cells in enlarged spleen 15. Increased plasma volume 16. Reticulocyte count low or normal (rr 0.5 – 2.0%) in impaired erythropoieses...
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Anaemia - 1 Decreased red-cell life span(haemolytic 2 Blood...

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