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Anatomy and physiolog1 - functions and organism • The 11...

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Anatomy and physiology A knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be used to predict the body's responses to stimuli when healthy or diseased. Anatomy Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body. Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by organ systems. Regional anatomy is the study of the body by areas. Surface anatomy uses superficial structures to locate deeper structures, and anatomical imaging is a noninvasive method for examining deep structures. Physiology Physiology is the study of the processes and functions of the body. Structural and Functional Organization The human body can be organized into seven levels: chemical (atoms and molecules), organelle (small structures within cells), cell, tissue (groups of cells with similar structure and structure), organ (two or more tissues that perform one or more common functions), organ system (groups of organs with common
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Unformatted text preview: functions), and organism. • The 11 organ systems are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems (see figure 1.2). Characteristics of Life • The characteristics of life include organization, metabolism, responsiveness, growth, differentiation, and reproduction. Homeostasis • Homeostasis is the condition in which body functions, fluids, and other factors of the internal environment are maintained within a range of values suitable to support life. • Negative-feedback mechanisms operate to maintain homeostasis. • Positive-feedback mechanisms make deviations from normal even greater. Although a few positive-feedback mechanisms normally exist in the body, most positive-feedback mechanisms are harmful. Terminology and the Body Plan...
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