Bladder cancer Treatment

Bladder cancer Treatment - fashioned from a loop of bowel;...

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Bladder cancer Treatment The treatment of Bladder Cancers depends upon its staging and grade. Superficial (stage 1-2) tumours can be removed using electrocautery during Cystoscopy. Following removal, Immunotherapy is usually utilised. Immunotherapy in the form of BCG instillation is used to stimulate the host immune system to destroy cancer cells and prevent recurrence. BCG therapy is successful in approximately 2/3 rds of cases at preventing recurrence. Instillations of chemotherapeutics such as Valrubicin have also been trialled to treat BCG-refractory disease with some success; however patient's whose tumours recur after BCG therapy are much harder to treat. Invasive Bladder Tumours are usually treated surgically with cystectomy where the bladder and adjacent tissues are removed. Following cystectomy patients may have the ureters redirected to stoma on the skins surface which can be covered with Urostomy bags. In some patients a new bladder can be
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Unformatted text preview: fashioned from a loop of bowel; however as this new bladder lack innervation the patient will typically have to catheterise themselves at regular interval to prevent reflux kidney damage. Following cystectomy some patients may undergo radio or chemo therapy to help manage residual disease. Prognosis Once bladder cancer has been diagnosed, cystoscopic follow ups must be continued for life, usually at an interval of 6-12 months. Approximately 80% of patients with superficial tumours and 50% of patients who have had a cystectomy are still alive at 5-years. Prevention Smoking cessation reduces the risk of bladder cancer, lung cancer as well as many other forms of malignancy. Regular screening of people who work with industrial dyes or in rubber processing has also been shown to identify cases early which improves prognosis....
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