Bladder cancer - gained the cancer is staged and graded....

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Bladder cancer Epidemiology In the UK Bladder cancer is the 4 th most common cancer in men and the 9 th most common cancer in women. ¾ of cases in the UK are found in men after the age of 50. Bladder cancer are 50 time more common than those involving the ureter or kidney. Bladder cancers have a tendency to recur and as such need regular follow up. Diagnosis A diagnosis of Bladder Cancer is usually made by an Urologist via Cystoscopy in suspected individuals who have presented with painless haematuria. Cystoscopy is an imaging technique where a camera is inserted into the bladder to view the inside of bladder. At this stage the urologist will take a specimen of the suspected malignancy for histology. Once a diagnosis of bladder cancer is made – other imaging techniques such as CT scans can they help identify the extent of invasion. Once all this information is
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Unformatted text preview: gained the cancer is staged and graded. Staging Bladder Cancer is important for management. Staging is as follows:-Stage 0 – Cancer cells are only found on the inner lining of the bladder Stage I – Cancer cells have proliferated beyond the inner lining but not to the muscle layer Stage II – Cancer cells have proliferated into the muscle wall but not the fatty tissue Stage III – Cancer cells have proliferated into the fatty tissue Stage IV – Cancer cells have spread to the local lymph nodes Grading of Bladder Cancer is as follows:- Low grade – Cells still look like balder cells High grade – Cells no longer look anything like bladder cells Type of Cancer Transitional Cell Carcinomas – 90% of cases Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Adenoma carcinoma, Small Cell Carcinomas – 10% of cases...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course ANTHRO 2000 taught by Professor Monicaoyola during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Bladder cancer - gained the cancer is staged and graded....

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