Blood Vessels and Circulatio3

Blood Vessels and Circulatio3 - Blood Vessels of the...

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Blood Vessels and Circulation Capillaries Capillaries consist of only endothelium and are surrounded by a basement membrane and loose connective tissue. Nutrient and waste product exchange is the principal function of capillaries. Blood is supplied to capillaries by arterioles. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillary networks. Veins Venules are endothelium surrounded by a basement membrane. Small veins are venules covered with a layer of smooth muscle. Medium-sized and large veins contain less smooth muscle and elastic fibers than arteries of the same size. Valves prevent the backflow of blood in the veins. Aging of the Arteries Arteriosclerosis results from a loss of elasticity primarily in the aorta, large arteries, and coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis results from the deposition of plaques rich in cholesterol in the wall of blood vessels, reducing the diameter of the vessels.
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Unformatted text preview: Blood Vessels of the Pulmonary Circulation • The pulmonary circulation moves blood to and from the lungs. The pulmonary trunk carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs, and pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: Arteries Aorta o The aorta leaves the left ventricle to form the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta, which consists of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. Arteries of the Head and Neck o The brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries branch from the aortic arch to supply the head and the upper limbs. o The common carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries supply the head. The common carotid arteries divide to form the external carotids (which supply the face and mouth) and the internal carotids (which supply the brain)...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course ANTHRO 2000 taught by Professor Monicaoyola during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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