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Cell Structures and Their Functions

Cell Structures and Their Functions - Nucleoli and...

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Cell Structures and Their Functions Cell Structure and Function Cells are highly organized units composed of living material. The nucleus contains genetic material, and cytoplasm is living material outside the nucleus. Cell Membrane The cell membrane forms the outer boundary of the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell. The cell membrane is composed of a double layer of lipid molecules in which proteins float. The proteins function as membrane channels, carrier molecules, receptor molecules, enzymes, and structural components of the membrane. Nucleus The nuclear envelope consists of two separate membranes with nuclear pores. DNA and associated proteins are found inside the nucleus as chromatin. DNA is the hereditary material of the cell and controls the activities of the cell.
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Unformatted text preview: Nucleoli and Ribosomes • Nucleoli consist of RNA and proteins and are the sites of ribosomal subunit assembly. • Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • Rough ER is ER with ribosomes attached. It is a major site of protein synthesis. • Smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached and is a major site of lipid synthesis. The Golgi Apparatus • The Golgi apparatus is a series of closely packed membrane sacs that function to collect, modify, package, and distribute proteins and lipids produced by the ER. Secretory Vesicles • Secretory vesicles are membrane-bound sacs that carry substances from the Golgi apparatus to the cell membrane, where the vesicle contents are released. ....
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