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Chemical Bonds - Chemical Bonds Electrons of an atom differ...

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Chemical Bonds: Electrons of an atom differ in amount of potential ( stored ) energy - electrons closest to the nucleus have the least potential energy (nonbonding electrons) - electrons farthest from the nucleus have the greatest potential energy ( valence or bonding electrons) First energy level can contain a maximum of 2 bonding electrons Second energy level , and all additional energy levels, can contain a maximum of 8 bonding electrons Octet rule : except for the first energy level, the outermost energy level is most stable when it has 8 bonding electrons (the first energy level is most stable with its maximum of 2 bonding electrons) Bonding: Ionic Bonding : transfer of electrons from one atom to another - results in ions: charged particles resulting from charge imbalance (greater or fewer electrons than protons) due to electron transfer - Examples : NaCl, MgCl 2 , Na 2 O - Chemical formulas of compounds based on # of valence electrons (example: from above: MgCl 2 , Mg has 2 valence electrons to donate, while Cl can only accept 1, so two Cl atoms are needed to accept the 2 valence electrons donated by one Mg
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