Cystiti1 - • Sexual intercourse • Atrophic vaginitis...

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Cystitis Cystitis is a term that refers to urinary bladder inflammation that results from any one of a number of distinct syndromes. It is usually caused by infection, termed a Urinary Tract Infection, but can be caused by other disease processes. Symptoms The symptoms of cystitis include:- Pressure or pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis Painful urination (dysuria) Frequent urination (polyuria) or urgent need to urinate (urinary urgency) Need to urinate at night (nocturia) Abnormal urine colour (cloudy) Foul or strong urine odour (usually caused by bacterial infections) In children cystitis may present as:- Crying on urination Vague abdominal tenderness and pain Failure to thrive Fever Anorexia and vomiting Causes Most cases of cystitis result from the introduction of bowel organisms via the urethra into the bladder. Various factors facilitate infection in women including:-
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Unformatted text preview: • Sexual intercourse • Atrophic vaginitis • Immunosuppression • Pregnancy In men such factors as incomplete bladder emptying or structural abnormalities of the urinary tract may be the cause or male cystitis. The main causative organisms are:-• Escherichia coli – 68% • Proteus mirabilis – 12% • Streptococcus spp – 6% • Klebsiella spp – 4% In children causes include structural abnormalities of the urinary tract and sexual abuse and should be investigated further. Other causes of Cystitis include:- • Local trauma cause by a renal stone in the bladder • Schistosomiasis infections • Interstitial cystitis (the name given to chronic bladder inflammation) o The causative agent is unknown but potential causes include Stress, Anxiety, Genetic predisposition and immune dysfunction of Mast cell degranulation...
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