Cystitis - further investigation A second episode of...

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Cystitis Epidemiology Acute cystitis has been reported to be the most common bacterial infection, resulting in >10 million medical visits in 2001. It is much more common in women than men, which has classically been attributed to the shorter urethra in women. In one survey of 2000 randomly sampled women >18 years, 10.8% of women had experienced cystitis due to a UTI in the past 12 months, and by 24 years of age it is estimated that 33% of women will have experienced a UTI. Interstitial cystitis has a prevalence of roughly 1-5 per 100,000 population, it is also more common in women. Diagnosis Diagnosis of cystitis depends upon clinical symptoms, clinical findings and the results from urine dipstick, microscopy, sensitivity and culture (MS&C). Often a UTI in a woman may have no predisposing cause, and adult women with a single attack of cystitis, which usually will respond to antibiotic therapy, needs no
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Unformatted text preview: further investigation. A second episode of cystitis in an adult woman within a few months, or a primary episode of a UTI in a child or man warrants investigations to determine if there is an underlying cause. Urine dipstick tests can reveal the presence or absence of compounds and chemicals that should not typically be found in urine. These include:-• Glucose • Protein • Ketone bodies • Red blood cells • Leukocytes • Nitrates • pH • Urine Specific Gravity If infection is present protein, nitrates, red blood cells, leukocytes and nitrates may be present. However since urine dipstick tests do not specifically test for bacteria, they can only be used as a guide – not a diagnostic tool. Urine MC&S may reveal the causative organism as well as the antibiotic it is sensitive to. Further investigations include:-• Cystoscopy • Intravenous Urogram (IVU)...
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Cystitis - further investigation A second episode of...

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