Diencephalon - motor centres The pons is mainly a...

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Diencephalon The diencephalon is located centrally within the forebrain. It consists of the thalamus , hypothalamus and epithalamus , which together enclose the third ventricle. The thalamus acts as a grouping and relay station for sensory inputs ascending to the sensory cortex and association areas. It also mediates motor activities, cortical arousal and memories. The hypothalamus, by controlling the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system, is responsible for maintaining the body’s homeostatic balance. Moreover it forms a part of the limbic system , the ‘emotional’ brain. The epithalamus consists of the pineal gland and the CSFproducing choroid plexus . Brain stem The brain stem is similarly structured as the spinal cord: it consists of grey matter surrounded by white matter fibre tracts. Its major regions are the midbrain , pons and medulla oblongata. The midbrain, which surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, provides fibre pathways between higher and lower brain centres, contains visual and auditory reflex and subcortical
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Unformatted text preview: motor centres. The pons is mainly a conduction region, but its nuclei also contribute to the regulation of respiration and cranial nerves. The medulla oblongata takes an important role as an autonomic reflex centre involved in maintaining body homeostasis. In particular, nuclei in the medulla regulate respiratory rhythm, heart rate, blood pressure and several cranial nerves. Moreover, it provides conduction pathways between the inferior spinal cord and higher brain centres. Cerebellum The cerebellum , which is located dorsal to the pons and medulla, accounts for about 11% of total brain mass. Like the cerebrum, it has a thin outer cortex of grey matter, internal white matter, and small, deeply situated, paired masses (nuclei) of grey matter. The cerebellum processes impulses received from the cerebral motor cortex, various brain stem nuclei and sensory receptors in order to appropriately control skeletal muscle contraction, thus giving smooth, coordinated movements....
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