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HIV1 - Immunofluorescence assay A diagnosis of AIDS is made...

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HIV/AIDS Epidemiology The incidence and prevalence of HIV and AIDS vary massively across the globe. In the western world the prevalence of HIV is roughly 0.1-1%, in Eastern Europe & North African the prevalence is 1-5% whilst in Sub-Saharan Africa prevalence is in excess of 15%. Since 1994 the number of new cases has fallen globally from 3.5 million new cases a year to 2.75 million new cases. Additionally whilst the number of people living with HIV is rising (now 35million) the number of deaths caused by AIDS is falling. Diagnosis Whilst there isn’t a specific test for AIDS there are antibody screening tests for HIV. There are two tests for HIV:- The initial screen uses an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect HIV-1 antibodies For specimens that are non-reactive the patient is considered HIV negative For specimens that are reactive the sample is retested If the retest is also reactive the sample undergoes confirmatory testing visa a Western-Blot or
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Unformatted text preview: Immunofluorescence assay A diagnosis of AIDS is made if a patient suffering from specific clinical conditions related to immune deficiency has a CD4 count below 200 per ml Treatment CD4 count and prevent the progression to AIDS. Treatment for HIV can be broadly broken down into Anti-retroviral drugs and Post-exposure Prophylaxis. Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) • 2 x Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors + 1 Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor or a Protease Inhibitor • Examples of NRTIs include – Emtricitabine & Tenofovir • Examples of NNRTIs include – Efavirenz & Nevirapine • Examples of PI include - Ritonavir & Darunavir Post-exposure Prophylaxis uses the same drugs used in HAART but must be used within 72 hrs of exposure, optimally within 1 hour...
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HIV1 - Immunofluorescence assay A diagnosis of AIDS is made...

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