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Infections of the nervous syste1

Infections of the nervous syste1 - o Iatrogenically e.g at...

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Infections of the nervous system There are many different causes of infections that can affect the nervous system. This is a short summary of the common infectious causes. Infections of the central nervous system Relatively common; Caused by most classes of infecting agents. The 4 main patterns of associated inflammation = Meningitis; Encephalitis/Myelitis; Meningo-encephalitis; Cerebral Abscess Meningitis Inflammation of meninges due to o Bacteria: E. coli; H. influenzae; N. meningitides; S. pneumoniae; M. tuberculosis o Viruses: Herpes simplex & Zoster; Mumps; Measles; Coxsackie o Fungi: Cryptococcus; Candida albicans o Other: SLE; Behcet’s disease; Intrathecal drugs Organisms may enter meninges by o Being blood borne o Spread from adjacent focus of infection, e.g. ear/nose
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Unformatted text preview: o Iatrogenically, e.g. at lumbar puncture Symptoms & signs: These are specific to meningeal inflammation: Fever; Headache; Vomiting; Photophobia; Neurological deficits; Convulsions; Loss of consciousness. In others, they may occur in relation to systemic involvement, e.g. rash. It is often associated with a rise in intracranial pressure results in major damage to neural tissue. Post-inflammatory fibrosis may obstruct drainage pathways for CSF ---- Hydrocephalus Diagnosis: Meningitis is often suspected clinically, but it is confirmed by cytological, biochemical & bacteriological examination of CSF. Prognosis : This depends upon cause, age, immunological status of patient & stage of disease...
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