Injuries to bone and joints of the upper limb Clavicle

Injuries to bone and joints of the upper limb Clavicle -...

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Injuries to bone and joints of the upper limb Clavicle The clavicle acts as a strut for the arm. High energy impacts may cause the clavicle to fracture. Fractures of the clavicle can be classified as follows: Fracture of middle 1/3 (group I) o Most common clavicular Frx in both adults and children (80%) o Frx usually occur in mid third region & have upward displacement of medial fragment produced by sternocleidomastoid muscle o Lateral fragment is pulled downward by wt of limb Frx of distal 1/3 (group II) o Account for 10-15% of clavicle Frx o Minimal displacement (type I) o Frx medial to CC ligaments (type II) o Articular surface fractures (type III) o Treatment Distal clavicle fractures may have a high incidence of non union but most of these are asymptomatic, and of these only a small number will Be severe enough to require surgery Frx of medial 1/3 (group III) o Account for 5% of clavicular Frx o Fractures of the medial end of the clavicle Complications of Clavicle Fractures Lying under the clavicle is the brachial plexus and the subclavian vein
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Unformatted text preview: • If either of these are severed or compressed then resulting pathology will ensue Shoulder As with the AC joint the humero-glenoid joint can be injured in two main ways: • Ligament damage • Skeletal fractures Ligament damage: • 1 st degree – sprain • 2 nd degree – subluxation • 3 rd degree – dislocation o If this occurs the humerus can shift anteriorly or posteriorly o If the humerus shifts posteriorly it can be difficult to detect on X-Ray Fracture dislocations: • This occurs when the proximal head of the humerus is fractured and a segment comes away from the main head • Once again this is best detected through the use of X-ray Nerve Injuries cause by Trauma Dislocation of the humerus can cause axillary circumflex nerve injury. This type of injury results in an area of desensitised skin on the deltoid called a regimental patch. Nerve damage may also be caused by incorrect relocation of the dislocated humerus....
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course ANTHRO 2000 taught by Professor Monicaoyola during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Injuries to bone and joints of the upper limb Clavicle -...

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