Long Term Regulation

Long Term Regulation - (vasoconstrictors) o aldosterone...

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Long Term Regulation: Renal regulation o Direct renal mechanism: blood volume altered through filtration in kidneys o Indirect renal mechanism: renin-angiotensin mechanism leads to aldosterone production Monitoring Circulatory efficiency Pulse : indirect measure of heartbeat/heart rate (measures arterial pressure during cardiac cycle) - often for convenience radial artery is monitored (radial pulse) Blood Pressure : measured from brachial artery with sphygmomanometer - uses auscultatory method (listening for filling of artery as pressure in cuff drops below arterial pressure) - normal resting ranges: systolic BP: 110-140 mm Hg; diastolic BP: 75-80 mm Hg - blood pressure increased by : o increased cardiac output : heart rate or blood volume increase o increased peripheral resistance : increased blood vessel diameter o activation of baroreceptors o epinephrine & norepinephrine
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Unformatted text preview: (vasoconstrictors) o aldosterone & ADH (increase blood volume)- blood pressure lowered by : o activation of baroreceptors (& medulla oblongata) o atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (inhibits aldosterone & ADH) Alterations in Blood Pressure- Hypotension : low blood pressure (systolic BP below 100 mm Hg) o often due to individual variations, fluctuations o chronic hypotension may be indicative of poor nutrition- Hypertension : high blood pressure (sustained arterial pressure > 140/90) o Acutely due to exercise, illness o Chronic hypertension may be indicative of increased peripheral resistance (often due to vessel blockage) Primary hypertension : most cases; no known cause factors include diet, obesity, age, race heredity, stress & smoking Secondary hypertension : ~ 10% of cases; due to disorders such as arteriosclerosis & hyperthyroidism PAGE4...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course ANTHRO 2000 taught by Professor Monicaoyola during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Long Term Regulation - (vasoconstrictors) o aldosterone...

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