njuries to bone and joints of the upper limb

njuries to bone and joints of the upper limb - As blood...

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njuries to bone and joints of the upper limb This note covers injuries to the bones and joints of the upper limb Introduction Definitions Fracture - A breach of the integrity of part or the whole of a bone Subluxation - A partial separation of the articular surfaces of the joint Dislocation - Complete separation of the articular surfaces of a joint Fracture Dislocation - A dislocation where there is also a fracture involving one or more of the articular surfaces of a joint Sprain - Stretching of the joint capsule and ligaments of a joint, insufficient to produce Subluxation or dislocation Mechanisms of Fracture Formation – Strength of the Bone Weak bones lead to fracture formation. Examples of conditions where the bones are weak are: Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Clinical Symptoms and Signs of a Fracture Pain Swelling Tenderness Bruising Deformity Crepitus Abnormal Movement What Causes Pain in a Fracture? The bones aren’t particularly well innervated by nerves, so where does the pain come from?
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Unformatted text preview: As blood escapes from the fractured ends of the bones it causes swelling in the local area of the fracture. This swelling presses on the nerves of the skin and surrounding structures causing the sensation of pain. Types of Fracture Compound - Fragments of the fractured bone penetrate the skin, leaving an open wound prone to infection. Compound fractures can be from within (where the bones penetrate the skin then go back into the body) or from without (where the bones penetrate and remain external to the skin) Complicated - A complicated fracture involves blood vessels, nerves, the spinal column, brain or the contents of the chest or abdomen How are Fractures Diagnosed? • History and Examination • X-Ray • Antero-posterior • Lateral • Oblique • CT scan • Multiple planes • MRI • Ultrasound • Bone Scan...
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