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Unformatted text preview: Proteus mirabilis Enterococcus faecalis Hospital-acquired infections may be due to coliforms and enterococci, as well as other organisms uncommon in the community such as Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Most cases of pyelonephritis start off as lower urinary tract infections, mainly cystitis and prostatitis. The risk of pyelonephritis is increased in the following situations:- Any structural abnormalities of the Urinary Tract o Vesicoureteral reflux (especially in young children o Ureteric obstruction due to renal calculi o Catheterisation o Ureteric stents o Neurogenic bladder o Prostate disease Comorbidities including diabetes mellitus and immunocompromised states Multiple or new sexual partners Family history of predisposition to UTIs...
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- Fall '10