Pyelonephriti1 - • Proteus mirabilis • Enterococcus...

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Pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis is an ascending Urinary Tract Infection that has travelled up the ureter into the renal pelvis. If the infection is sever the term urosepsis is used to describe a septic state of urological origin. Symptoms Pyelonephritis typically presents with:- Dysuria Renal angle tenderness and pain which radiates from the loin to groin Tenderness over the suprapubic region Symptoms which indicate infection (Fever and Rigors) Other symptoms may include:- o Nausea and Vomiting o Oliguria o Foul smelling urine In severe cases of Urosepsis the following signs are likely to present:- o Tachycardia o Tachypnoea o Hypotension Causes In the community, most cases of pyelonephritis are due to bowel organisms that have been introduced in to the Urinary Tract. Common organisms include:- E. coli (70-80%) Staphylococcus saprophyticus
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Unformatted text preview: • Proteus mirabilis • Enterococcus faecalis Hospital-acquired infections may be due to coliforms and enterococci, as well as other organisms uncommon in the community such as Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Most cases of pyelonephritis start off as lower urinary tract infections, mainly cystitis and prostatitis. The risk of pyelonephritis is increased in the following situations:-• Any structural abnormalities of the Urinary Tract o Vesicoureteral reflux (especially in young children o Ureteric obstruction due to renal calculi o Catheterisation o Ureteric stents o Neurogenic bladder o Prostate disease • Comorbidities including diabetes mellitus and immunocompromised states • Multiple or new sexual partners • Family history of predisposition to UTIs...
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Pyelonephriti1 - • Proteus mirabilis • Enterococcus...

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