Pyelonephritis - other investigations will be required. In...

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Pyelonephritis Epidemiology Pyelonephritis is very common, with 120-130 cases annually per 100,000 population in women and 30-40 cases per 100,000 in men. Young women are most likely to be affected, traditionally reflecting sexual activity in that age group. Infants and the elderly are also at increased risk, reflecting anatomical changes and hormonal status Diagnosis A diagnosis of pyelonephritis is typically made from a patient’s history, renal angle tenderness on examination and positive findings on investigations. A urine dipstick positive for blood, nitrites and leukocytes, while not diagnostic, is indicative of a urinary tract infection. Formal diagnosis is performed with urine MC&S from a Mid-Stream Sample. Blood cultures may also be needed is the source of sepsis is unknown or questionable. If a urological obstruction, renal calculi or prostatic hypertrophy, is suspected
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Unformatted text preview: other investigations will be required. In patients with recurrent ascending urinary tract infections, it may be necessary to exclude an anatomical abnormality, such as Vesicoureteral reflux or Polycystic Kidney Disease. Investigations that are commonly used in this setting are ultrasound of the kidneys or voiding cystourethrography. Prevention There are several methods to prevent UTIs in women, which may help prevent ascending urinary tract infections. These methods are as follows: Increase fluid intake to at least 8 glasses each day to maintain bladder hygiene Improve voiding habits by always responding to initial urge to void Void after intercourse to rid urethra of bacteria acquired during sex, and if a history of atypical anatomy or recurrent UTIs Seek medical attention as soon as symptoms of a UTI present...
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Pyelonephritis - other investigations will be required. In...

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